Complete List of Publications

    Publications in international peer-reviewed scientific journals

  1. Maier SU, Raja Beharelle A, Polanía R, Ruff CC, Hare TA (2020) Dissociable mechanisms govern when and how strongly reward attributes affect decisions. Nat Hum Behav.  doi:10.1038/s41562-020-0893-y

  2. Bikson M, Hanlon CA, Woods AJ, Gillick BT, Charvet L, Lamm C, Madeo G, Holczer A, Almeida J, Antal A, Ay MR, Baeken C, Blumberger DM, Campanella S, Camprodon JA, Christiansen L, Loo C, Crinion JT, Fitzgerald P, Gallimberti L, Ghobadi-Azbari P, Ghodratitoostani I, Grabner RH, Hartwigsen G, Hirata A, Kirton A, Knotkova H, Krupitsky E, Marangolo P, Nakamura-Palacios EM, Potok W, Praharaj SK, Ruff CC, Schlaug G, Siebner HR, Stagg CJ, Thielscher A, Wenderoth N, Yuan TF, Zhang X, Ekhtiari H (2020) Guidelines for TMS/tES clinical services and research through the COVID-19 pandemic. Brain Stimul. 13(4):1124‐1149. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2020.05.010

  3. Murd C, Moisa M, Grueschow M, Polania R, Ruff CC (2020) Causal contributions of human frontal eye fields to distinct aspects of decision formation. Sci Rep. 10(1):7317. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-64064-7

  4. Bukowski H, Tik M, Silani G, Ruff CC, Windischberger C, Lamm C (2020) When differences matter: rTMS/fMRI reveals how differences in dispositional empathy translate to distinct neural underpinnings of self-other distinction in empathy. Cortex. 128:143‐161. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2020.03.009

  5. Saposnik G, Oh J, Terzaghi MA, Kostyrko P, Bakdache F, Montoya A, Jaja BNR, Nisenbaum R, Ruff CC, Tobler PN (2019) Emotional expressions associated with therapeutic inertia in multiple sclerosis care. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 34:17-28. doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2019.05.029
  6. Engelmann JB, Meyer F, Ruff CC, Fehr E (2019) The neural circuitry of affect-induced distortions of trust. Sci Adv.  13;5(3). doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau3413
  7. Macauda G, Moisa M, Mast FW, Ruff CC, Michels L, Lenggenhager B (2019) Shared neural mechanisms between imagined and perceived egocentric motion - A combined GVS and fMRI study. Cortex. 119:20-32.  Epub ahead of print.
  8. Polanía R, Woodford M, Ruff CC (2019) Efficient coding of subjective value. Nature Neuroscience. (1):134-142. doi:10.1038/s41593-018-0292-0
  9. Saga Y, Ruff CC, Léon T (2018) Disturbance of approach-avoidance behaviors in non-human primates by stimulation of the limbic territories of basal ganglia and anterior insula. Eur J Neurosci. epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1111/ejn.14201
  10. Edelson MG, Polanía R, Ruff CC, Fehr E, Hare TA (2018) Computational and neurobiological foundations of leadership decisions. Science. 3;361(6401). doi: 10.1126/science.aat0036
  11. Konovalov A, Hu J, Ruff CC (2018) Neurocomputational approaches to social behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology. 21;24:41-47.  doi:10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.04.009
  12. Ruff CC (2018) Brain Stimulation Studies of Social Norm Compliance: Implications for Personality Disorders? Psychopathology. epub ahead of print. doi: 10.1159/000486898
  13. Polanía R, Nitsche MA, Ruff CC (2018) Studying and modifying brain function with non-invasive brain stimulation. Nature Neuroscience. doi:10.1038/s41593-017-0054-4
  14. Bächinger M, Zerbi V, Moisa M, Polanía R, Liu Q, Mantini D, Ruff CC, Wenderoth N (2017) Concurrent tACS-fMRI reveals causal influence of power synchoronized neural activity on resting state fMRI connectivity. J. Neurosci. 3;37(18):4766-4777. doi:10.1523/NEUROSCI.1756-16.2017
  15. Bogdanov M, Ruff CC, Schwabe L (2017) Transcranial stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex increases the impact of past expenses on decision-making. Cerebral Cortex 27(2): 1094-1102. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhv298
  16. Heinen K, Feredoes E, Ruff CC, Driver J (2017) Functional connectivity between prefrontal and parietal cortex drives visuo-spatial attention shifts. Neuropsychologia 99: 81-91. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2017.02.024
  17. Hill CA, Suzuki S, Polania R, Moisa M, O'Doherty JP, Ruff CC (2017) A causal account of the brain network computations underlying strategic social behavior. Nature Neuroscience ePub. doi:10.1038/nn.4602
  18. Maréchal MA, Cohn A, Ugazio G, Ruff CC (2017) Increasing honesty in humans with noninvasive brain stimulation. PNAS 114(17): 4360-4364. doi:10.1073/pnas.1614912114
  19. Saposnik G, Maurino J, Sempere AP, Ruff CC, Tobler PN (2017) Herding: A new phenomenon affecting medical decision-making in multiple sclerosis care? Lessons learned from DIScUTIR MS. Patient Preference and Adherence 11: 175-180. doi:10.2147/PPA.S124192
  20. Saposnik G, Sempere AP, Prefasi D, Selchen D, Ruff CC, Maurino J, Tobler PN (2017) Decision making in multiple sclerosis: The role of aversion to ambiguity for therapeutic inertia among neurologists (DIScUTIR MS). Frontiers in Neurology 8:65. doi:10.3389/fneur.2017.00065
  21. Soutschek A, Ugazio G, Crockett MJ, Ruff CC, Kalenscher T, Tobler PN (2017) Binding oneself to the mast: Stimulating frontopolar cortex enhances precommitment. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. Advance online publication. doi:10.1093/scan/nsw176
  22. Hauser TU, Rütsche B, Wurmitzer K, Brem S, Ruff CC, Grabner RH (2016) Neurocognitive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in arithmetic learning and performance: A simultaneous tDCS-fMRI study. Brain Stimulation, 9(6): 850-858. doi:10.1016/j.brs.2016.07.007
  23. Ligneul R, Obeso I, Ruff CC, Dreher JC (2016) Dynamical representation of dominance relationships in the human rostromedial prefrontal cortex. Current Biology 26(23): 3107-3115. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2016.09.015
  24. Moisa M, Polania R, Grueschow M, Ruff CC (2016) Brain network mechanisms underlying motor enhancement by transcranial entrainment of gamma oscillations. The Journal of Neuroscience 36(47): 12053-12065. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2044-16.2016
  25. Saposnik G, Redelmeier D, Ruff CC, Tobler PN (2016) Cognitive biases associated with medical decisions: a systematic review. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 16(1):138.
  26. Soutschek A, Ruff CC, Strombach T, Kalenscher T, Tobler PN (2016) Brain stimulation reveals crucial role of overcoming self-centeredness in self-control. Science Advances 2(10):e1600992
  27. Thoern HA, Grueschow M, Ehlert U, Ruff CC, Kleim B (2016) Attentional bias towards positive emotion predicts stress resilience. PLoS One 11: e0148368. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148368
  28. Engelmann JB, Meyer F, Fehr E, Ruff CC (2015) Anticipatory anxiety disrupts neural valuation during risky choice. The Journal of Neuroscience 35: 3085-3099. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2880-14.2015
  29. Grabner R, Ruetsche B, Ruff CC, Hauser T (2015) Transcranial direct current stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex modulates arithmetic learning. European Journal of Neuroscience 42: 1667-1674. doi: 10.1111/ejn.12947
  30. Grueschow M, Polania R, Hare TA, Ruff CC (2015) Automatic versus choice-dependent value representations in the human brain. Neuron 85: 874-885. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.054
  31. Polanía R, Moisa M, Opitz A, Grueschow M, Ruff CC (2015) The precision of value-based choices depends causally on fronto-parietal phase coupling. Nature Communications 6:8090. doi: 10.1038/ncomms9090
  32. Raja Beharelle A, Polanía R, Hare TA*, Ruff CC* (2015) Transcranial stimulation over frontopolar cortex elucidates the choice attributes and neural mechanisms used to resolve exploration-exploitation trade-offs. The Journal of Neuroscience 35(43): 14544-14556. *Joint senior authorship doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2322-15.2015
  33. Heinen K, Feredoes E, Weiskopf N, Ruff CC, Driver J (2014) Direct evidence for attention-dependent influences of the frontal eye-fields on feature-responsive visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 24(11): 2815-2821. doi:10.1093/cercor/bht157
  34. Kasper L, Haeberlin M, Dietrich BE, Gross S, Barmet C, Wilm BJ, Vannesjo SJ, Brunner DO, Ruff CC, Stephan KE, Pruessmann KP (2014) Matched-filter acquisition for BOLD fMRI. Neuroimage 100C: 145-160. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.024
  35. Polanía R, Krajbich I, Grueschow M, Ruff CC (2014) Neural oscillations and synchronization differentially support evidence accumulation in perceptual and value-based decision making. Neuron 82(3): 709-720. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.03.014
  36. Ruff CC, Fehr E (2014) The neurobiology of rewards and values in social decision making. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 15(8): 549-562. doi: 10.1038/nrn3776
  37. Schwiedrzik CM, Ruff CC, Lazar A, Leitner FC, Singer W, Melloni L (2014) Untangling perceptual memory: Hysteresis and adaptation map into separate cortical networks. Cerebral Cortex 24(5): 1152-1164. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhs396
  38. Denison RN, Driver J, Ruff CC (2013) Temporal structure and complexity affect audio-visual correspondence detection. Frontiers in Psychology 3:619. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00619
  39. Ruff CC (2013) Sensory processing: Who's in (top-down) control? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1296: 88-107. doi:10.1111/nyas.12204
  40. Ruff CC, Ugazio G, Fehr E (2013) Changing social norm compliance with noninvasive brain stimulation. Science 342(6157):482-484. doi:10.1126/science.1241399
  41. Silani G, Lamm C, Ruff CC, Singer T (2013) Right supramarginal gyrus is crucial to overcome emotional egocentricity bias in social judgments. Journal of Neuroscience 33: 15466-15476. doi:10.1523/​JNEUROSCI.1488-13.2013
  42. Chait M, Ruff CC, Griffiths TD, McAlpine D (2012) Cortical responses to changes in acoustic regularity are differentially modulated by attentional load. NeuroImage 59: 1932-1941. doi:110.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.09.006
  43. Marchant JL, Ruff CC, Driver J (2012) Audiovisual synchrony enhances BOLD responses in a brain network including multisensory STS while also enhancing target-detection performance for both modalities. Human Brain Mapping 33: 1212-1224. doi:10.1002/hbm.21278
  44. Morishima Y, Schunk D, Bruhin A, Ruff CC, Fehr E (2012) Linking brain structure and activation in temporoparietal junction to explain the neurobiology of human altruism. Neuron 75: 73-79. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2012.05.021
  45. Feredoes E, Heinen K, Weiskopf N, Ruff CC, Driver J (2011) Causal evidence for frontal involvement in memory target maintenance by posterior brain areas during distracter interference of visual working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108: 17510-17515. doi:10.1073/pnas.1106439108
  46. Gerits A, Ruff CC, Guipponi O, Wenderoth N, Driver J, Vanduffel W (2011) Transcranial magnetic stimulation of macaque frontal eye fields decreases saccadic reaction time. Experimental Brain Research 212: 143-152. doi:10.1007/s00221-011-2710-3
  47. Heinen K, Ruff CC, Bjoertomt O, Schenkluhn B, Bestmann S, Blankenburg F, Driver J, Chambers CD (2011) Concurrent TMS-fMRI reveals dynamic interhemispheric influences of the right parietal cortex during exogenously cued visuospatial attention. The European Journal of Neuroscience 33: 991-1000. doi:10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07580.x
  48. Sergent C, Ruff CC, Barbot A, Driver J, Rees G (2011) Top-down modulation of human early visual cortex after stimulus offset supports successful postcued report. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 23:1921-1934. doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21553
  49. Bestmann S, Swayne O, Blankenburg F, Ruff CC, Teo J, Weiskopf N, Driver J, Rothwell JC, Ward NS (2010) The role of contralesional dorsal premotor cortex after stroke as studied with concurrent TMS-fMRI. Journal of Neuroscience 30:11926-11937. doi:10.1523/​JNEUROSCI.5642-09.2010
  50. Blankenburg F, Ruff CC, Bestmann S, Bjoertomt O, Josephs O, Deichmann R, Driver J (2010). Studying the role of human parietal cortex in visuospatial attention with concurrent TMS-fMRI. Cerebral Cortex 20:2702-2711. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhq015
  51. Driver J, Blankenburg F, Bestmann S, Ruff CC (2010) New approaches to the study of human brain networks underlying spatial attention and related processes. Experimental Brain Research 206:153-162. doi:10.1007/s00221-010-2205-7
  52. Eshel N, Ruff CC, Spitzer B, Blankenburg F, Driver J (2010) Effects of parietal TMS on somatosensory judgments challenge interhemispheric rivalry accounts. Neuropsychologia 48:3470-3481. doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.07.031
  53. Sarri M, Ruff CC, Rees G, Driver J (2010) Neural correlates of visual extinction or awareness in a series of patients with right temporoparietal damage. Cognitive Neuroscience 1:16-25. doi:10.1080/17588921003592608
  54. Weil RS, Furl N, Ruff CC, Symmonds M, Flandin G, Dolan RJ, Driver J, Rees G (2010) Rewarding feedback after correct visual discriminations has both general and specific influences on visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 104:1746-1757. doi:10.1152/jn.00870.2009
  55. Driver J, Blankenburg F, Bestmann S, Vanduffel W, Ruff CC (2009) Concurrent brain-stimulation and neuroimaging for studies of cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 13:319-327.
  56. Geng JJ, Ruff CC, Driver J (2009) Saccades to a remembered location elicit spatially specific activation in human retinotopic visual cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 21:230-245.
  57. Pleger B, Ruff CC, Blankenburg F, Kloeppel S, Driver J, Dolan RJ (2009) Influence of dopaminergically mediated reward on somatosensory decision-making. PLoS Biology 7:e1000164.
  58. Ruff CC, Blankenburg F, Bjoertomt O, Bestmann S, Weiskopf N, Deichmann R, Driver J (2009) Hemispheric differences in frontal and parietal influences on human occipital cortex: direct confirmation with concurrent TMS–fMRI. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 21:1146-1161.
  59. Ruff CC, Driver J, Bestmann S (2009) Combining TMS and fMRI: From "virtual lesions" to functional-network accounts of cognition. Cortex 45 (special issue on TMS and Cognition), 1043-1049.
  60. Weiskopf N, Josephs O, Ruff CC, Blankenburg F, Featherstone E, Thomas A, Bestmann S, Driver J, Deichmann R (2009) Image artifacts in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and fMRI caused by leakage currents: modeling and compensation. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 29:1211-1217.
  61. Bestmann S, Ruff CC, Blankenburg F, Weiskopf N, Driver J, Rothwell JC (2008) Mapping causal interregional influences with concurrent TMS-fMRI. Experimental Brain Research 191:383-402.
  62. Bestmann S, Swayne O, Blankenburg F, Ruff CC, Haggard P, Weiskopf N, Josephs O, Driver J, Rothwell JC, Ward NS (2008) Dorsal premotor cortex exerts state-dependent causal influences on activity in contralateral primary motor and dorsal premotor cortex. Cerebral Cortex 18:1281-1291.
  63. Blankenburg F, Ruff CC, Bestmann S, Bjoertomt O, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, Driver J (2008) Interhemispheric effect of parietal TMS on somatosensory response confirmed directly with concurrent TMS-fMRI. Journal of Neuroscience 18:13202-13208.
  64. Brodersen KH, Penny WD, Harrison LM, Daunizeau J, Ruff CC, Duzel E, Friston KJ, Stephan KE (2008) Integrated Bayesian models of learning and decision making for saccadic eye movements. Neural Networks 21:1247-1260.
  65. Harrison LM, Penny W, Flandin G, Ruff CC, Weiskopf N, Friston KJ (2008) Graph-partitioned spatial priors for functional magnetic resonance images. NeuroImage 43:694-707.
  66. Pleger B, Blankenburg F, Ruff CC, Driver J, Dolan RJ (2008) Reward facilitates tactile judgments and modulates hemodynamic responses in human primary somatosensory cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 28:8161-8168.
  67. Ruff CC, Bestmann S, Blankenburg F, Bjoertomt O, Josephs O, Weiskopf N, Deichmann R, Driver J (2008) Distinct causal influences of parietal and frontal brain regions on activity in human retinotopic visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex 18:817-827.
  68. Schenkluhn B, Ruff CC, Heinen K, Chambers CD (2008) Parietal stimulation decouples spatial and feature-based attention. Journal of Neuroscience 28:11106-11110.
  69. Bestmann S, Ruff CC, Blakemore C, Driver J, Thilo KV (2007) Spatial attention changes excitability of human visual cortex to direct stimulation. Current Biology 17:134-139. (for comment see Mangun GR, Fannon SP (2007) Attention: control in the visual cortex. Current Biology 7:R170-172.)
  70. Ruff CC, Kristjansson A, Driver J (2007) Readout from iconic memory involves similar neural processes as selective spatial attention. Psychological Science 18:901-909.
  71. Blankenburg F, Ruff CC, Deichmann R, Rees G, Driver J (2006) The cutaneous rabbit illusion affects human primary sensory cortex somatotopically. PLoS Biology 4:459-466.
  72. Fangmeier T, Knauff M, Ruff CC, Sloutsky V (2006) fMRI evidence for a three-stage model of deductive reasoning. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18:320-334.
  73. Geng JJ, Eger E, Ruff CC, Kristjansson A, Rotshtein P, Driver J (2006) On-line attentional selection from competing stimuli in opposite visual fields: effects on human visual cortex and control processes. Journal of Neurophysiology 96:2601-2612.
  74. Pleger B, Blankenburg F, Bestmann S, Ruff CC, Wiech K, Stephan KE, Friston KJ, Dolan RJ (2006) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced changes in sensorimotor coupling parallel improvements of somatosensation in humans. Journal of Neuroscience 26:1945-1952.
  75. Pleger B, Ruff CC, Blankenburg F, Bestmann S, Wiech K, Stephan KE, Friston KJ, Dolan RJ (2006) Neural coding of tactile decisions in the human prefrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience 26:12596-12601.
  76. Ruff CC, Blankenburg F, Bjoertomt O, Bestmann S, Freeman E, Haynes JD, Rees G, Josephs O, Deichmann R, Driver J (2006) Concurrent TMS-fMRI and psychophysics reveal frontal influences on human retinotopic visual cortex. Current Biology 16:1479-1488. (for comment see Kayser C, Logothetis N. Vision: stimulating your attention. Current Biology 16:R581-513.)
  77. Ruff CC, Driver J (2006) Attentional preparation for a lateralized visual distractor: behavioral and fMRI evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18:522-538.
  78. Woodward TS, Cairo TA, Ruff CC, Takane Y, Hunter MA, Ngan ETC (2006) Functional connectivity reveals load dependent neural systems underlying encoding and maintenance in verbal working memory. Neuroscience 139:317-325.
  79. Woodward TS, Ruff CC, Ngan ETC (2006) Short- and long-term changes in anterior cingulate activation during resolution of task-set competition. Cognitive Brain Research 1068:161-169.
  80. Unterrainer JM, Ruff CC, Rahm B, Kaller CP, Spreer J, Krause BJ, Schwarzwald R, Halsband U (2005) The influence of sex differences and individual task performance on brain activation during planning. NeuroImage 24:586-590.
  81. Unterrainer JM, Rahm B, Kaller CP, Ruff CC, Spreer J, Krause BJ, Schwarzwald R, Hautzel H, Halsband U (2004) When planning fails: Individual differences and error-related brain activity in reasoning. Cerebral Cortex 14:1390-1397.
  82. Woodward TS, Thornton AE, Ruff CC, Moritz S, Liddle P (2004) Material-specific memory associates of the Psychomotor Poverty Syndrome in schizophrenia. Cognitive Neuropsychiatry 9:213-227.
  83. Knauff M, Fangmeier T, Ruff CC, Johnson-Laird PM (2003) Reasoning, models, and images: Behavioral measures and cortical activity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 15:1-15.
  84. Moritz S, Woodward T, Ruff CC (2003) Source monitoring, memory confidence, and attribution error perseveration in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine 33:131-139.
  85. Ruff CC, Knauff M, Fangmeier T, Spreer J (2003) Reasoning and working memory: Common and distinct neuronal processes. Neuropsychologia 41:1241-1253.
  86. Unterrainer JM, Rahm B, Leonhart R, Ruff CC, Halsband U (2003) The Tower of London: the impact of instructions, cueing, and learning on planning abilities. Cognitive Brain Research 17:685-683.
  87. Woodward TS, Ruff CC, Thornton AE, Moritz S, Liddle PF (2003) Methodological considerations regarding the association of Stroop and verbal fluency performance with the symptoms of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Research 61:207-214.
  88. Siedentopf CM, Golaszewski SM, Mottaghy FM, Ruff CC, Felber S, Schlager A (2002) Functional magnetic resonance imaging detects activation of the visual association cortex during laser acupuncture of the foot in humans. Neuroscience Letters 32:53-56.
  89. Moritz S, Ruff C, Wilke U, Andresen B, Krausz M, Naber D (2001) Negative priming in schizophrenia: effects of masking and prime presentation time. Schizophrenia Research 48:293-301.
  90. Ruff CC, Woodward TS, Laurens KL, Liddle PF (2001) The role of the anterior cingulate cortex in conflict processing: Evidence from reverse Stroop interference. NeuroImage 14(5):1150-1158.

    Contributions to books

  1. Ugazio G, Ruff CC (2017) Neural control of social decisions: Causal evidence from brain stimulation studies. In: JC Dreher, L Tremblay (eds.) Decision neuroscience: An integrative approach (pp. 233-245). Amsterdam: Elsevier. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-805308-9.00019-1
  2. Ruff CC, Huettel S (2013) Research methods in cognitive neuroscience. In PW Glimcher, E Fehr (eds.), Neuroeconomics: Decision making and the brain (2nd ed.; pp. 77-108). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.
  3. Ruff CC (2012) Combined neuroimaging methods. In H Cooper (ed.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology, Vol 1: Foundations, planning, measures, and psychometrics (pp. 581-600). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  4. Ruff CC (2011) A systems-neuroscience view of attention. In C Mole, D Smithies, W Wu (eds.), Attention: Philosophical and psychological essays (pp. 1-23). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  5. Bestmann S, Ruff CC, Driver J, Blankenburg F (2008) Concurrent TMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging: Methods and current advances. In E Wasserman, C Epstein, U Ziemann (eds.), Oxford handbook of transcranial stimulation (pp. 569-592). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
  6. Ruff CC, Fangmeier T, Knauff M (2004) A neurocognitive approach to individual differences in reasoning. In I Reinvang, MW Greenlee, M Herrmann (eds.), The cognitive neuroscience of individual differences: New perspectives (pp. 157-173). Delmenhorst, Germany: HWK.